Best of the Week
Most Popular
1. TESLA! Cathy Wood ARK Funds Bubble BURSTS! - 12th May 21
2.Stock Market Entering Early Summer Correction Trend Forecast - 10th May 21
3.GOLD GDX, HUI Stocks - Will Paradise Turn into a Dystopia? - 11th May 21
4.Crypto Bubble Bursts! Nicehash Suspends Coinbase Withdrawals, Bitcoin, Ethereum Bear Market Begins - 16th May 21
5.Crypto Bubble BURSTS! BTC, ETH, XRP CRASH! NiceHash Seizes Funds on Account Halting ALL Withdrawals! - 19th May 21
6.Cathy Wood Ark Invest Funds Bubble BURSTS! ARKK, ARKG, Tesla Entering Severe Bear Market - 13th May 21
7.Stock Market - Should You Be In Cash Right Now? - 17th May 21
8.Gold to Benefit from Mounting US Debt Pile - 14th May 21
9.Coronavius Covid-19 in Italy in August 2019! - 13th May 21
10.How to Invest in HIGH RISK Tech Stocks for 2021 and Beyond - Part 2 of 2 - 18th May 21
Last 7 days
Overclockers UK Custom Built PC 1 YEAR Use Review Verdict - Does it Still Work? - 16th Oct 21
Altonville Mine Tours Maze at Alton Towers Scarefest 2021 - 16th Oct 21
How to Protect Your Self From a Stock Market CRASH / Bear Market? - 14th Oct 21
The Only way to Crush Inflation (not stocks) - 14th Oct 21
Why "Losses Are the Norm" in the Stock Market - 14th Oct 21
Sub Species Castle Maze at Alton Towers Scarefest 2021 - 14th Oct 21
Which Wallet is Best for Storing NFTs? - 14th Oct 21
Ailing UK Pound Has Global Effects - 14th Oct 21
How to Get 6 Years Life Out of Your Overclocked PC System, Optimum GPU, CPU and MB Performance - 13th Oct 21
The Demand Shock of 2022 - 12th Oct 21
4 Reasons Why NFTs Could Be The Future - 12th Oct 21
Crimex Silver: Murder Most Foul - 12th Oct 21
Bitcoin Rockets In Preparation For Liftoff To $100,000 - 12th Oct 21
INTEL Tech Stock to the MOON! INTC 2000 vs 2021 Market Bubble WARNING - 11th Oct 21
AI Stocks Portfolio Buying and Selling Levels Going Into Market Correction - 11th Oct 21
Stock Market Wall of Worry Meets NFPs - 11th Oct 21
Stock Market Intermediate Correction Continues - 11th Oct 21
China / US Stock Markets Divergence - 10th Oct 21
Can US Save Taiwan From China? Taiwan Strait Naval Battle - PLA vs 7th Fleet War Game Simulation - 10th Oct 21
Gold Price Outlook: The Inflation Chasm Between Europe and the US - 10th Oct 21
US Real Estate ETFs React To Rising Housing Market Mortgage Interest Rates - 10th Oct 21
US China War over Taiwan Simulation 2021, Invasion Forecast - Who Will Win? - 9th Oct 21
When Will the Fed Taper? - 9th Oct 21
Dancing with Ghouls and Ghosts at Alton Towers Scarefest 2021 - 9th Oct 21
Stock Market FOMO Going into Crash Season - 8th Oct 21
Scan Computers - Custom Build PC 6 Months Later, Reliability, Issues, Quality of Tech Support Review - 8th Oct 21
Gold and Silver: Your Financial Main Battle Tanks - 8th Oct 21
How to handle the “Twin Crises” Evergrande and Debt Ceiling Threatening Stocks - 8th Oct 21
Why a Peak in US Home Prices May Be Approaching - 8th Oct 21
Alton Towers Scarefest is BACK! Post Pandemic Frights Begin, What it's Like to Enter Scarefest 2021 - 8th Oct 21
AJ Bell vs II Interactive Investor - Which Platform is Best for Buying US FAANG Stocks UK Investing - 7th Oct 21
Gold: Evergrande Investors' Savior - 7th Oct 21
Here's What Really Sets Interest Rates (Not Central Banks) - 7th Oct 21
CISCO 2020 Dot com Bubble Stock vs 2021 Bubble Tech Stocks Warning Analysis - 6th Oct 21
Precious Metals Complex Searching for a Bottom - 6th Oct 21
FB, AMZN, NFLX, GOOG, AAPL and FANG+ '5 Waves' Speaks Volumes - 6th Oct 21
Budgies Flying Ability 10 Weeks After wings Clipped, Flight Feathers Cut Grow Back - 6th Oct 21
Why Silver Price Could Crash by 20%! - 5th Oct 21
Will China's Crackdown Send Bitcoin's Price Tumbling? - 5th Oct 21
Natural Gas News: Europe Lacks Supply, So It Turns to Asia - 5th Oct 21
Stock Market Correction: One More Spark to Light the Fire? - 5th Oct 21
Fractal Design Meshify S2, Best PC Case Review, Build Quality, Airflow etc. - 5th Oct 21
Chasing Value with Five More Biotech Stocks for the Long-run - 4th Oct 21
Gold’s Century - While stocks dominated headlines, gold quietly performed - 4th Oct 21
NASDAQ Stock Market Head-n-Shoulders Warns Of Market Weakness – Critical Topping Pattern - 4th Oct 21
US Dollar on plan, attended by the Gold/Silver ratio - 4th Oct 21
Aptorum Group - APM - High RIsk Biotech Stocks Buy, Sell, Hold Investing Analysis for the Long-run - 3rd Oct 21
US Close to Hitting the Debt Ceiling: Gold Doesn’t Care - 3rd Oct 21
Powell: Inflation Might Not Be Transitory, After All - 3rd Oct 21
Original Oculus VR HeadSet Rift Dev Kit v1 Before Facebook Bought Oculus - 3rd Oct 21
Microsoft Stock Valuation 2021 vs 2000 Bubble - Buy Sell or Hold Invest Analysis - 1st Oct 21
How to profit off the Acquisition spree in Fintech Stocks - 1st Oct 21
�� Halloween 2021 TESCO Shopping Before the Next Big Panic Buying! �� - 1st Oct 2
The Guide to Building a Design Portfolio Online - 1st Oct 21
BioDelivery Sciences International - BDSI - High RIsk Biotech Stocks Buy, Sell, Hold Investing Analysis for the Long-run - 30th Sep 21
America’s Revolving-Door Politics Behind the Fall of US-Sino Ties - 30th Sep 21
Dovish to Hawkish Fed: Sounds Bearish for Gold - 30th Sep 21
Stock Market Gauntlet to the Fed - 30th Sep 21
Should you include ESG investments in your portfolio? - 30th Sep 21
Takeda - TAK - High RIsk Biotech Stocks Buy, Sell, Hold Investing Analysis for the Long-run - 29th Sep 21
Stock Market Wishing Away Inflation - 29th Sep 21
Why Workers Are NOT Returning to Work as Lockdown's End - Wage Slaves Rebellion - 29th Sep 21
UK Fuel PANIC! Fighting at the Petrol Pumps! As Lemmings Create a New Crisis - 29th Sep 21
Gold Could See Tapering as Soon as November! - 29th Sep 21

Market Oracle FREE Newsletter

How to Protect your Wealth by Investing in AI Tech Stocks

Humans Are Hard-Wired to Value Some People over Others

Politics / Social Issues Mar 09, 2016 - 05:37 PM GMT

By: MISES

Politics

Andrew Syrios writes: One of the most persistent — and fallacious — argument against the libertarian or laissez-faire position is that libertarianism is an “atomistic” and “selfish” philosophy that denies the obvious truth that human beings are a “social species” who long for a strong sense of community.


Perhaps David Masciotra’s semi-coherent rant best illustrates this line of thinking as libertarianism is a political program that “eliminates empathy” and “denies the collective.” That it is in “Opposition to any conception of the public interest and common good, and the consistent rejection of any opportunity to organize communities in the interest of solidarity” and is nothing but a “… rejection of all rules and regulations, and the belief that everyone should have the ability to do whatever they want.” To sum up, “It is infantile naïveté.”

Voluntary Relationships Are Extremely Valuable

Most good straw men are as self-evidently true as they are irrelevant. While it may be true that some libertarians want so much to be left alone that they would prefer to be left alone by not just the government but, well, everyone. The vast majority of people — including libertarians — understand quite well that human beings are a social and communitarian species. Libertarians simply believe human beings can self-organize and that it should be left to the individual which communities he or she will join and on what terms.

While a deontological argument could pretty much end there, critics will once again point to the scientific fact that human beings are a social animal and that a “selfish” value system at odds with our nature is a utopian (or maybe dystopian) fantasy.

While libertarians focus on the primacy of the individual, that focus does not in any way necessitate atomism. The plethora of libertarian gatherings and meet-ups should prove that by itself. Nor does it infer selfishness (although Ayn Rand — who explicitly denounced libertarianism, but is often associated with libertarianism — might argue this point). Selfishness and altruism are not mutually exclusive. As the psychologist Robert Wright describes, “Love … makes us want to further the happiness of others; it makes us give up a little so that others (the loved ones) may have a lot. More than that: love actually makes this sacrifice feel good.”1 The famous self-help guru Dale Carnegie made the same observation,

Every act you have ever performed since the day you were born was performed because you wanted something. How about the time you gave a large contribution to the Red Cross? Yes, that is no exception to the rule. You gave the Red Cross the donation because you wanted to lend a helping hand; you wanted to do a beautiful, unselfish, divine act.2

People can be selfless, sure, but they do so in a selfish way.

Not All Human Relationships Are the Same

This goes beyond a simple misunderstanding of libertarian theory, though. These critics, usually from the Left, have confused the science on human empathy and altruism. In fact, libertarianism is probably the only philosophical framework that can rectify human nature with the modern world in a peaceful way. The mistake stems from attempts to universalize humanity’s natural social instincts. This can be illustrated by an interview Steven Pinker discusses between Zach De La Rocha and Noam Chomsky,

[De La Rocha]: Another unquestionable idea is that people are naturally competitive, and that therefore, capitalism is the only proper way to organize society. Do you agree?

Chomsky: Look around you. In a family for example, if the parents are hungry do they steal food from the children? They would if they were competitive. In most social groupings that are even semi-sane people support each other and are sympathetic and helpful and care about other people and so on. Those are normal human emotions. It takes plenty of training to drive those feelings out of people’s heads, and they show up all over the place.3

Chomsky’s mistake is so self-evidently ridiculous it almost beggars belief. He is effectively drawing an equivalence between someone’s own children and some guy that person has never met on the other side of the planet. Does it really take “plenty of training” for someone to care more about their own children than strangers? As Steven Pinker notes,

Unless people treat other members of society the way they treat their own children, the answer is a non-sequitur: people could care deeply about the children but feel differently about the millions of other people who make up society. The very framing of the question and answer assumes that humans are competitive or sympathetic across the board, rather than having different emotions toward people with whom they have different genetic relationships.4

Indeed, Adam Smith noticed this very thing back in the eighteenth century when he wrote,

Let us suppose that the great empire of China, with all its myriads of inhabitants, was suddenly swallowed up by an earthquake, and let us consider how a man of humanity in Europe, who had no sort of connexion with that part of the world, would be affected upon receiving intelligence of this dreadful calamity. He would, I imagine, first of all, express very strongly his sorrow for the misfortune of that unhappy people, he would make many melancholy reflections upon the precariousness of human life, and the vanity of all labours of man, which could thus be annihilated in a moment. He would too, perhaps, if he was a man of speculation, enter into many reasonings concerning the effects which this disaster might produce upon the commerce of Europe, and the trade and business of the world in general. And when all this fine philosophy was over, when all the humane sentiments had been once fairly expressed, he would pursue his business, take his repose or his diversion, with the same ease and tranquility, as if no such accident had happened. The most frivolous disaster which could befall him would occasion a more real disturbance. If he was to lose his little finger to-morrow, he would not sleep to-night; but, provided he never saw them, he will snore with the most profound security over the ruin of a hundred millions of his brethren, and the destruction of that immense multitude seems plainly an object less interesting to him, than this paltry misfortune of his own.5

While we were all shocked and saddened by the tsunami in Indonesia in 2004, the earthquake in Haiti 2010, the tsunami and subsequent nuclear meltdown in Japan in 2011 as well as every other such tragedy, how many people do you know that actually lost any sleep over it?

Scientists explain this selective empathy through either kin selection for family (they share our genes) or reciprocal altruism, which develops friendships; both of which are lacking to strangers and even most acquaintances. So while tragedy abroad comes off to most as an unfortunate curiosity, we have all seen, and likely know, of people taking extreme risks or making huge sacrifices to help people they know, love and care about. Siblings will donate kidneys or part of their liver to each other; parents will take absurd risks to save their children and the like. Yes, strangers can do these things too sometimes. Occasionally there will even be an anonymous kidney donation from a living donor, but it’s quite rare. Indeed, the usual activism expressed at the suffering of strangers is to press the retweet button or to join some group that furthers one’s own self-identity.

The Limits of Human Relationships

This would further explain why the pop stars and movie stars are elevated so high in technological societies. It’s not like the average pop star is thousands of times more talented than those that “didn’t make it.” Indeed, the exact same song that makes it to the top of the charts would usually be lost in obscurity if released by a “no name” artist. And we know this without any doubt because the same few people who write pop songs do so for many different pop stars. What happens is that individuals can only keep track of so many different people at once and thereby pick only a select few artists to care about. People associate music or movies they like with that celebrity and despite not knowing the person personally, that celebrity basically becomes a one-way “friend” of sorts. 

Much of this may seem quite obvious, but it underlies the fact the human beings are neither purely competitive nor purely cooperative. Even within competitive institutions, there is a substantial amount of cooperation. Other than commission-based industries, virtually all companies rely first and foremost on internal cooperation to fulfill a competitive aim. Businesses even have to cooperate with each other, for example, when it comes to outsourced vendors and suppliers. The term “Co-opertition” has even been coined to describe this phenomenon.

As noted above, the mistake the Left makes when criticizing libertarianism is to mistake humanity’s cooperative instincts as universal. There’s something called Dunbar’s number that notes that human beings can only comfortably maintain approximately 150 stable relationships. There has been some bickering amongst various psychologists about whether the number is actually 100 or 250 or thereabout, but there is basic unanimity that the general thesis is true.

Malcolm Gladwell described in his book The Tipping Point that the company W.L. Gore and Associates discovered by trial and error that social problems started occurring in any building that housed more than 150 people and thus reorganized to avoid such problems. Many other companies have started doing the same. Indeed, most groups, from social clubs to military units and the like tend to cluster around this number or even smaller. Even studies on social media have found that Dunbar’s number holds true. Yes, you may have more than 150 Facebook friends, but how many of those are really, truly friends?

A study in Nature looked at how people played the prisoner’s dilemma (a game that rewards cooperation, but only if all parties cooperate). As Christopher Allen describes, they created,

100 independent simulations with group sizes ranging from 2 to 512, and then [executed] each simulation 1,000 to 2,000 times. Each generation of the "players" was allowed to evolve different strategies of cooperation vs defection, the classic successful strategy being Tit for Tat. They would then evaluate the percentage of players who had cooperative strategies.

If punishment of defections was ruled out, they discovered that over the 1,000+ generations of the simulation that the rate of cooperation quickly crashes, such that at the group size of 8 a little over 50% cooperation evolved, and for groups that are larger than 16 none cooperate.

In essence, the evidence shows the humans either evolved or were created as a tribal species. And this fact is found in the typical group sizes of hunter-gatherer societies that still exist today. As Maria Konnikova notes, “The average group size among modern hunter-gatherer societies (where there was accurate census data) was 148.4 individuals.”

Indeed, the evidence even indicates that this general phenomenon is true across all primates. As Robin Dunbar, Louise Barrett, and John Lycett note,

… a series of studies … showed that relative neocortex volume correlates with various measures of social complexity across primates … [and] Humans fit this primate relationship between group size and neocortex size surprisingly well.6

For most monkeys and apes, their “Dunbar’s number” for group size falls between five and 50.

So while human beings are not naturally atomistic, group cohesion, and cooperation are not univeralizable as many on the Left believe (or at least, want to believe). Of course we should treat everyone we come across — be it family, friend, or stranger with decency and respect. But, if naturally-cohesive human groups are small, as the scientific evidence clearly shows, then what sort of societal arrangement would best suit our species in the complex, modern would our minds are clearly not designed for? One governed by a massive state apparatus, or one of more localized, federated communities?

Andrew Syrios is a Kansas City-based real estate investor and partner with Stewardship Properties. He also blogs at Swifteconomics.com. See Andrew Syrios's article archives.

You can subscribe to future articles by Andrew Syrios via this RSS feed.

http://mises.org

© 2016 Copyright Andrew Syrios - All Rights Reserved Disclaimer: The above is a matter of opinion provided for general information purposes only and is not intended as investment advice. Information and analysis above are derived from sources and utilising methods believed to be reliable, but we cannot accept responsibility for any losses you may incur as a result of this analysis. Individuals should consult with their personal financial advisors.


© 2005-2019 http://www.MarketOracle.co.uk - The Market Oracle is a FREE Daily Financial Markets Analysis & Forecasting online publication.


Post Comment

Only logged in users are allowed to post comments. Register/ Log in